1. Materials Collected

1. Materials Collected

Understanding the quantity of materials available is a first start in deciding whether to establish diversion programs at the depot. The CIF Depot Costing Model can help estimate tonnage based on population.

Knowing the amount and type of materials in the residential waste stream is a first step in deciding whether to target them for diversion. The primary tools available to help identify what is in the residential waste stream follow:

Conducting a Waste Composition Study – Studies provide the most insightful information about waste generation/diversion habits. The CIF has developed curbside and depot waste composition study procedures, as follows:

  • Depot – A modified waste study for depots is possible by following the approach presented in the Depot Pre Screening Survey and Depot Waste Composition Study Worksheets. The process requires a pre-screening survey of the users, collection of materials and sorting. The CIF has much more information and resources available on the topic of Waste Composition Studies here: Read more

Alternatively, you can use existing waste study information from communities comparable in size and location to estimate waste generation rates and diversion opportunities:

Waste Composition Studies – CIF has conducted dozens of residential waste studies including small, rural communities. These studies are available for use in estimating waste generation rates for your community. This won’t be exact, but it should provide a useful starting point. Read more

CIF Depot Costing Model – This CIF Model offers the option for the user to estimate the amount and type of materials in the waste stream based on the community’s population. Read more – see Design & Construction Costs tab

The depot may accept materials from local business, municipal offices and facilities and the seasonal population. Efforts should be taken to quantify and address these materials during the design phase.

For seasonal population generation rates assume a 4:1 ratio, that is, 4 seasonal residents equals 1 permanent resident.

The size, design and geographic location of your depot will impact if it is economically and technically feasible to divert a targeted material and the infrastructure/costs necessary to manage it.

To determine the diversion feasibility of a targeted material, try asking the following questions:

  • How much is available and what is the quality
  • What level of community participation in the recycling program can be realistically expected
  • Are there local processing capabilities and are the long term markets viable
  • What are the expected costs to collect, store, transport, process and market
  • Are any local alternatives for reuse or diversion available
  • What are the storage, handling and transportation requirements and can they be managed by existing resources and infrastructure
  • Are there safety, litter or other concerns that can be effectively managed
  • What is the willingness of the public and Council to support the initiative

Also, work with the MRF to determine if additional revenues or cost savings can be gained by separating out certain materials such as cardboard or clean polystyrene transport packaging or glass bottles from the container stream.

The CIF Small Municipal Depot Guidebook  provides an example of the decision making process that might take place in assessing whether to divert film at a depot. (See page 11.)

Some municipalities are beginning to target non-obligated materials for diversion at their depots, for example:

  • Bulky Rigid Plastics (e.g. plastic table and chairs, kids’ pools, large toys) – Simcoe County and Horton Township
  • Window Panes – Simcoe County
  • Mattresses – Simcoe County ($15 fee per mattress)
  • Asphalt and drywall – Ottawa Valley Waste Recovery Centre
  • Clean wood – Ottawa Valley Waste Recovery Centre
  • Organics – Township of Killaloe, Hagarty and Richards and Township of Madawaska Valley

Shared Experience

Township of Central Frontenac Depot Upgrades, 2015

Prior to 2013, Central Frontenac did not pre-sort their fibre stream and received no revenue from the MRF. By separating cardboard (OCC), they started generating revenue, receiving $2,120.98 in 2013 and $4,137.41 in 2014. Read more

Keeping informed about the Waste Free Ontario Act and CCME Phase 2 EPR material targets will help the planning process.

There are two pending initiatives that could dramatically change the way in which certain materials are managed in the future;

  • The Waste-Free Ontario Act (The Act, formally Bill 151)
  • The CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) Phase 2 EPR materials.

Waste Free Ontario Act

The Act was passed June 1, 2016 and received Royal Assent on June 9, 2016. The Waste-Free Ontario Act comprises two pieces of legislation:

Under the legislation, the government has the authority to introduce new EPR regulations and future programs/policies supporting waste reduction and resource recovery. The key components include:

  • Target ICI waste (expected to include CRD waste)
  • Decrease hazardous and toxic substances in products & packaging
  • Minimize greenhouse gases associated with waste management and diversion activities
  • Transition to full EPR responsibility for Blue Box materials and introduce new EPR materials
  • Increase durability, reusability and recyclability of products and packaging
  • Minimize disposal, which includes introducing bans (e.g. organics)
  • Make brand owners responsible for providing P&E to increase collection, reuse, recycling or recovery

The Waste Diversion Transition Act will help transition the existing Industry Funding Organization (IFO) programs for Blue Box materials, municipal household and special waste (MHSW), waste electronics (WEEE) and tires to an Individual Producer Responsibility (IPR) system over the next 2-4 years. The aim is to transition while avoiding disruption to existing recycling services.

On Nov. 30, 2016, Waste Diversion Ontario (WDO) transitioned to a new oversight Authority called the Resource Productivity and Recovery Authority. The new Authority will be focused on reporting, compliance, enforcement and responsibility as a data clearinghouse.

The MOECC is also required to produce a final Strategy for a Waste-Free Ontario: Building the Circular Economy, within three months of the legislation coming into effect.

To keep informed about the Ontario Waste Free Ontario Act and future regulations, you can subscribe to the CIF newsletter or see the latest CIF news by clicking here.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Phase 2 EPR materials

In 2009, CCME released the Canada-Wide Action Plan for Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). This plan outlines intended actions, responsibilities and timelines that jurisdictions will work towards to implementing EPR programs for Phase 1 and Phase 2 designated products and materials. Many of the Phase 1 materials already have EPR programs in place. None of the Phase 2 designated materials have EPR programs in any Canadian province or territory. The deadline to develop EPR programs for the Phase 2 materials is 2017.

Phase 2 materials include:

  • Construction and demolition materials
  • Furniture
  • Textiles and Carpets
  • Appliances, including ozone-depleting substances (ODS)

Phase 2 EPR plans are discussed under the 2009 Canada-wide Action Plan for Extended Producer Responsibility and the 2014 Progress Report.

+ Volume & Quality Available

Understanding the quantity of materials available is a first start in deciding whether to establish diversion programs at the depot. The CIF Depot Costing Model can help estimate tonnage based on population.

Knowing the amount and type of materials in the residential waste stream is a first step in deciding whether to target them for diversion. The primary tools available to help identify what is in the residential waste stream follow:

Conducting a Waste Composition Study – Studies provide the most insightful information about waste generation/diversion habits. The CIF has developed curbside and depot waste composition study procedures, as follows:

  • Depot – A modified waste study for depots is possible by following the approach presented in the Depot Pre Screening Survey and Depot Waste Composition Study Worksheets. The process requires a pre-screening survey of the users, collection of materials and sorting. The CIF has much more information and resources available on the topic of Waste Composition Studies here: Read more

Alternatively, you can use existing waste study information from communities comparable in size and location to estimate waste generation rates and diversion opportunities:

Waste Composition Studies – CIF has conducted dozens of residential waste studies including small, rural communities. These studies are available for use in estimating waste generation rates for your community. This won’t be exact, but it should provide a useful starting point. Read more

CIF Depot Costing Model – This CIF Model offers the option for the user to estimate the amount and type of materials in the waste stream based on the community’s population. Read more – see Design & Construction Costs tab

The depot may accept materials from local business, municipal offices and facilities and the seasonal population. Efforts should be taken to quantify and address these materials during the design phase.

For seasonal population generation rates assume a 4:1 ratio, that is, 4 seasonal residents equals 1 permanent resident.

+ Material Selection Process

The size, design and geographic location of your depot will impact if it is economically and technically feasible to divert a targeted material and the infrastructure/costs necessary to manage it.

To determine the diversion feasibility of a targeted material, try asking the following questions:

  • How much is available and what is the quality
  • What level of community participation in the recycling program can be realistically expected
  • Are there local processing capabilities and are the long term markets viable
  • What are the expected costs to collect, store, transport, process and market
  • Are any local alternatives for reuse or diversion available
  • What are the storage, handling and transportation requirements and can they be managed by existing resources and infrastructure
  • Are there safety, litter or other concerns that can be effectively managed
  • What is the willingness of the public and Council to support the initiative

Also, work with the MRF to determine if additional revenues or cost savings can be gained by separating out certain materials such as cardboard or clean polystyrene transport packaging or glass bottles from the container stream.

The CIF Small Municipal Depot Guidebook  provides an example of the decision making process that might take place in assessing whether to divert film at a depot. (See page 11.)

Some municipalities are beginning to target non-obligated materials for diversion at their depots, for example:

  • Bulky Rigid Plastics (e.g. plastic table and chairs, kids’ pools, large toys) – Simcoe County and Horton Township
  • Window Panes – Simcoe County
  • Mattresses – Simcoe County ($15 fee per mattress)
  • Asphalt and drywall – Ottawa Valley Waste Recovery Centre
  • Clean wood – Ottawa Valley Waste Recovery Centre
  • Organics – Township of Killaloe, Hagarty and Richards and Township of Madawaska Valley

Shared Experience

Township of Central Frontenac Depot Upgrades, 2015

Prior to 2013, Central Frontenac did not pre-sort their fibre stream and received no revenue from the MRF. By separating cardboard (OCC), they started generating revenue, receiving $2,120.98 in 2013 and $4,137.41 in 2014. Read more

+ Future EPR Designated Materials

Keeping informed about the Waste Free Ontario Act and CCME Phase 2 EPR material targets will help the planning process.

There are two pending initiatives that could dramatically change the way in which certain materials are managed in the future;

  • The Waste-Free Ontario Act (The Act, formally Bill 151)
  • The CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) Phase 2 EPR materials.

Waste Free Ontario Act

The Act was passed June 1, 2016 and received Royal Assent on June 9, 2016. The Waste-Free Ontario Act comprises two pieces of legislation:

Under the legislation, the government has the authority to introduce new EPR regulations and future programs/policies supporting waste reduction and resource recovery. The key components include:

  • Target ICI waste (expected to include CRD waste)
  • Decrease hazardous and toxic substances in products & packaging
  • Minimize greenhouse gases associated with waste management and diversion activities
  • Transition to full EPR responsibility for Blue Box materials and introduce new EPR materials
  • Increase durability, reusability and recyclability of products and packaging
  • Minimize disposal, which includes introducing bans (e.g. organics)
  • Make brand owners responsible for providing P&E to increase collection, reuse, recycling or recovery

The Waste Diversion Transition Act will help transition the existing Industry Funding Organization (IFO) programs for Blue Box materials, municipal household and special waste (MHSW), waste electronics (WEEE) and tires to an Individual Producer Responsibility (IPR) system over the next 2-4 years. The aim is to transition while avoiding disruption to existing recycling services.

On Nov. 30, 2016, Waste Diversion Ontario (WDO) transitioned to a new oversight Authority called the Resource Productivity and Recovery Authority. The new Authority will be focused on reporting, compliance, enforcement and responsibility as a data clearinghouse.

The MOECC is also required to produce a final Strategy for a Waste-Free Ontario: Building the Circular Economy, within three months of the legislation coming into effect.

To keep informed about the Ontario Waste Free Ontario Act and future regulations, you can subscribe to the CIF newsletter or see the latest CIF news by clicking here.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) Phase 2 EPR materials

In 2009, CCME released the Canada-Wide Action Plan for Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). This plan outlines intended actions, responsibilities and timelines that jurisdictions will work towards to implementing EPR programs for Phase 1 and Phase 2 designated products and materials. Many of the Phase 1 materials already have EPR programs in place. None of the Phase 2 designated materials have EPR programs in any Canadian province or territory. The deadline to develop EPR programs for the Phase 2 materials is 2017.

Phase 2 materials include:

  • Construction and demolition materials
  • Furniture
  • Textiles and Carpets
  • Appliances, including ozone-depleting substances (ODS)

Phase 2 EPR plans are discussed under the 2009 Canada-wide Action Plan for Extended Producer Responsibility and the 2014 Progress Report.